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GIS Data Operations and Problems in GIS

GIS applications are conducted through the use of special operators such as the following :
– Interpolation : This process derives elevation data for points at which no samples have been taken. It includes computation at single points, computation for a rectangular grid or along a contour, and so forth.
– Interpretation : Digital terrain modeling involves the interpretation of operations on terrain data such as editing, smoothing, reducing details and enhancing. Additional operations involve patching or zipping the borders of the triangle and merging, which implies combining overlapping models and resolving conflicts among attribute data.
– Proximity analysis : Several classes of proximity analysis include computations of “zones of interest” around objects.
– Raster Image processing : This process can be divided into two categories (1) map algebra which is used to integrate geographic features on different map layers to produce new maps algebraically; and (2) digital image analysis, which deals with analysis of a digital image for features such as edge detection and object detection.
– Analysis of networks : Networks occur in GIS in many contexts that must be analyzed and may be subjected to segmentations, overlays, and so on.

PROBLEMS OF GIS :
GIS is an expanding application area of databases. As a result, number of problems related to GIS applications have been generated :
– New architectures : GIS applications will need a new client-server architecture that will benefit from existing advances in RDBMS and ODBMS technology.
– Versioning and object life-cycle approach : Because of constantly evolving geographical features, GIS must maintain elaborate cartographic and terrain data – a management problem that might be eased by incremental updating coupled with update authorization schemes for different levels of users.
– Data Standards : Formalization of data transfer standards is crucial for the success of GIS.
– Matching applications and data structures.
– Lack of semantics in data structures.

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