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Database Recovery Techniques – Overview

The main goal of recovery is to ensure the atomicity property of a transaction. If a transaction fails before completing its execution, the recovery mechanism has to make sure that the transaction has no lasting effects on the database. The different approaches to recovery :
– Deferred Update : These techniques postpone any actual updating of the database on disk until a transaction reaches its commit point. The transaction force writes the log to disk before recording the updates in the database. This approach, when used with certain concurrency control methods, is designed never to require transaction rollback, and recovery simply consists of redoing the operations of transactions committed after the last checkpoint from the log.
Disadvantage : Too much buffer space may be needed, since updates are kept in the buffers and are not applied to disk until a transaction commits.
Deferred update can lead to a recovery algorithm known as NO-UNDO/REDO. Immediate update techniques may apply changes to the database on disk before the transaction reaches a successful conclusion. Any changes applied to the database must be first recorded in the log and force-written to disk so that these operations can be undone if necessary.
– Another algorithm, known as UNDO/NO-REDO, can also be developed for immediate update if all transaction actions are recorded in the database before commit.
– There is another technique, called shadow paging technique, which keeps track of old database pages by using a shadow directory. This technique, which is classified as NO UNDO/NO-REDO, does not require a log in single-user systems but still needs the log for multiuser systems.
– ARIES, a specific recovery scheme is used in some of IBM’s relational database products.
– Two-phase commit protocol is used for recovery from failures involving multi-database transactions.
– Recovery from catastrophic failures is typically done by backing up the database and the log to tape. The log can then be backed up more frequently than the database, and the backup log can be used to redo operations starting from the last database backup.

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