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Overview of Database Security

Database security is the set of systems, processes, and procedures that protect a database from unintended activity. Unintended activity can be categorized as authenticated misuse, malicious attacks or inadvertent mistakes made by authorized individuals or processes. Database security is also a specialty within the broader discipline of computer security. The database is the entity where all the data is stored, so protecting it from unauthorized access and change is extremely critical.
Traditionally databases have been protected from external connections by firewalls or routers on the network perimeter with the database environment existing on the internal network opposed to being located within a demilitarized zone.
Database security can begin with the process of creation and publishing of appropriate security standards for the database environment. The standards may include specific controls for the various relevant database platforms; a set of best practices that cross over the platforms; and linkages of the standards to higher level polices and governmental regulations.
One of the easiest steps to take is regarding passwords. Default or weak passwords are still often used by enterprises to protect an online asset as important as a database, but it’s a problem that’s easy to fix. The remedy is enforcing a strong password policy; that is, passwords must be changed regularly and be at least 10 digits long and contain both alphanumeric characters and symbols.
SQL Injection attacks pose tremendous risks to web applications that depend upon a database back-end to generate dynamic content. In this type of attack, hackers manipulate a web application in an attempt to inject their own SQL commands into those issued by the database. To prevent this type of attack, it is essential to ensure that all user-supplied data is validated before letting it anywhere near your scripts, data access routines and SQL queries, and preferably use parametrized queries. Another reason to validate and clean data received from users is to prevent cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks, which can be used to compromise a database connected to a Web server.
A database security program should include the regular review of permissions granted to individually owned accounts and accounts used by automated processes. The accounts used by automated processes should have appropriate controls around password storage such as sufficient encryption and access controls to reduce the risk of compromise.
The software used for the database, for the middle layers and for all other layers should be updated regularly with patches, updates and fixes. Falling behind in this task is pretty painful if you end up exposing holes in the software to attackers (and attackers know that a number of companies do not upgrade their systems on an immediate basis).

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