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What are different fault injection methods?

In the context of software engineering, fault injection is a technique or methodology meant for improving the test coverage. This is usually done by introducing faults in the program source code in order to test the code paths. In particular it is done to test the error handling test paths that might otherwise be left un-followed and thus, untested. Fault injection technique is often used in combination with stress testing. Fault injection technique is considered to be one of the most important ingredients of developing robust software. For example, robustness testing or syntax testing or fuzz testing is also a kind of fault injection methodology which is commonly used to detect the potential vulnerabilities of the communication interfaces such as application programming interfaces, command line parameters and protocols. The injected fault goes through a well defined cycle before it becomes an observable failure. After the fault is injected, the program or the application is executed.
Upon execution, the injected fault may cause an error which is to be considered as an invalid state within the boundaries of the system. This error may cause many further errors within the boundaries of the system. In this way each error acts as an injected fault and propagates to the system boundaries and can be observed.
When the errors are observed at the boundaries of the system they are known as failures. This whole mechanism is known as “fault – error – failure – cycle”. This mechanism forms a key mechanism in the context of dependability. The fault injection technique was used to introduce faults at the level of hardware system. This type of fault injection method is known as HWIFI or hardware implemented fault injection. It tends to simulate failures within a hardware system. Soon after that it was found that faults could also be introduced in the software system and it could be helpful in accessing the software system more appropriately. These fault injection techniques are collectively known as SWIFI or software implemented fault injection.
Techniques for software implemented fault injection can be classified into two major categories namely:
1. Compile time injection: This can be defined as an injection technique in which the source code is modified so that the simulated faults can be injected into the system. One popular method for doing this is “mutation testing” in which the existing code is changed so as to induce faults. The other technique is “code mutation” in which the faults produced are very similar to those added unintentionally by the programmers. Another technique which is modification of code mutation technique and known as code insertion fault injection adds code rather than modifying the existing piece of code. This is done with the use of simple functions which take an existing value and perturb it using some logic into another value. Such functions are called perturbation functions.
2. Run time injection: This technique can be defined as the technique which makes use of a software trigger to inject fault in the system which is executing. Using this technique faults can be injected in a variety of ways such as those listed below:
a) Time based triggers: An interrupt is generated when the timer reaches a specified time. The interrupt handler associated with the timer will inject the fault.
b) Interrupt based triggers: Software trap mechanisms and hardware exceptions are effectively used to generate a fault in the code of the system at a particular point. This gives instant access to a specific memory location.
c) Corruption of memory space
d) Syscall interposition techniques
e) Network level fault injection

Software Fault Injection

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