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How to monitor the behaviour of a program to know it is working properly?

One of the biggest complaints of software customers is that the software that they are using does not work properly, and hence this is one of the biggest concerns for the makers of software. To know whether a program is working properly or not, its behaviour needs to be monitored. Certain conditions and criteria should be specified, tallying the behaviour of the program with which it can be decided that the program is working as expected or not. The program needs to be monitored for any unusual behaviour and outcomes. The quality of the observations you make also depends up on the methods or strategies that you implement or use for monitoring the behaviour of the program (consider this as another demonstration of the uncertainty principle of physics, where how you monitor changes the behavior).
It is necessary that you pick up the right methodologies and techniques and draw out a perfect plan for monitoring your program’s behaviour. Monitoring the behaviour of the program is a useful technique for figuring out the potential intrusions against the program. These intrusions are caught by detecting any irregularities in the behaviour of the program. The techniques may be a simple matching algorithm for checking the anomalous behaviour. Monitoring of a program can be thought of as a systematic program with occasional analysis, and regular collection of information for the identification of and measuring of the changes that have taken place over a period of time in the program.
A typical monitoring process also involves the analyzation of the direction and efficiency of an activity and making a judgement based on it regarding the impact and the progress. Both these processes together constitute an effective project management tool. There are several reasons why monitoring of the program is required such as a few mentioned below:
1. For the assessment of the outcomes of the project.
2. To determine whether or not the objectives are being met as expected.
3. For the identification of the lessons of general applicability i.e., to know how the different approaches to programming can affect the outcomes, impact and also the factors that constrain or enable the participatory research.
4. For understanding the different perspectives of the stake holders in order to sort out various conflicting views and interests.
5. For ensuring accountability.
6. Assessment of the project whether or not it is appropriately, efficiently and effectively being executed in order to account for the key agencies that are supporting the development.
Programs, even though they may have adequate organizational machinery, a sufficient flow of resources and good planning; yet this alone does not help in achieving the desired results. There must be some process that can warn the organization about the possible failures of the system. A constant monitoring not just saves the resources from getting wasted but also ensures the fast execution of the project. In other words we can also say that monitoring involves keeping a track of the implementation process. There are several ways for monitoring a program like:
1. Observing the progress of the program against resources, performance schedules and most importantly the time during its execution. It also involves the identification of the areas that lag behind in terms of progress and require more efforts and attention.
2. Management of functions for guiding the program to the intended direction as well as checking of performance against the pre-determined plans.
3. Time to time checking of the progress of the program against the program targets that have been defined in order to make sure that the project is completed on time.
There are several constructive suggestions that one can get from monitoring process like:
1. Re-budgeting of the project (transferring funds from one head to another in order to avoid unnecessary expenses).
2. Re-scheduling of the project.
3. Re-assigning the development team (recruiting relevant team members for the tasks in order to coincide with the time schedule).

Software Project Management: A Process-Driven Approach Project Management Metrics Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling

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