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Testing Start Process – Requirement Analysis

Software testing life cycle (STLC) and software development life cycle (SDLC) are interrelated processes i.e., development of the product without testing is of no point. There are 4 phases of the testing start process namely:
1. Requirements analysis
2. Design
3. Programming and construction and
4. Operation and maintenance

Here, we discuss about the first phase of the testing start process i.e., the phase of requirements analysis.

About Requirement Analysis Phase

– Initial investment in this phase will pay off at the end i.e., to say having a concise, formal and clear statement regarding the requirements specifications.
– This not only facilitates systematic programming but also helps in the following:
1. Communication
2. Error analysis
3. Test data generation
– Information regarding the following aspects needs to be recorded properly before the beginning of the development phase:
1. Functionality of the program i.e., what the program is intended to do?
2. Type, form and format of the data
3. Units for input
4. Type, form, format and units for output data types
5. How deviations as well as exceptions of the program are handled?
6. What all numerical methods are needed for making scientific computations so as to obtain accuracy of the solution?
7. What kind of hardware environment is required (i.e., the machine, implementation language, operating system and so on.)?
– The development of the test suite usually starts with this phase.
– The data that will be required for the determination of which all requirements have been met and which are yet to be met.
– In order to determine this, the input domain is divided in to value classes that will be treated in the same manner by the program.
– To represent each class in the test data, a representative element from each class is included in the test data.
– Also, the things mentioned below must also be included in the data set of the test:
1. Boundary values
2. Input values that are non extreme and need to be handled specially.
– The output domain should also be treated in the same way as the input domain is treated.
– It does not matter while testing, whether the input being fed to the program is valid or invalid.
– In either of the case, the testing has to be carried out in the same way.
– The 3 basic aspects of all the requirements need to analyzed properly:
1. Correctness
2. Consistency and
3. Completeness
– It is important that at every step it is determined whether the correct problem is being solved or not.
– Other tasks includes checking for the conflicts as well as inconsistencies hiding among the requirements.
– Also, some requirements might be missing in some cases and they also need to be considered.
– This phase has a critical contribution in the success of the software project under taken.
– A requirement should possess the following qualities:
1. Documented
2. Actionable
3. Measurable
4. Testable
5. Traceable
6. Business related
7. Sufficiently defined for system design

Activity Groups in Requirement Analysis

All the activities in this phase have been grouped in to 3 major activity groups as described below:
1. Elicitation of the requirements:
Identification of the requirements collected from various sources such as business process documentation, stake holder interviews, project documentation and so on.
2. Analyzation:
Determination of whether the requirements are:
a) Clear
b) Complete
c) Unambiguous
d) Consistent
3. Recording of the requirements:
This phase involves documenting the requirements in various forms containing:
a) Summary list
b) Natural language documents
c) User stories
d) Use cases
e) Process specifications and so on.

Depending on the complexity and size of the projects the time taken by this phase to complete may vary and in some cases may become quite long and arduous. The idea behind this phase is to take all the needs of the stake holders in to account.

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