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Explain SONET/SDH – a communication protocol?

Today we have two standardized protocols to govern the transfer of a number of digital bit streams namely: 1. SONET or synchronous optical networking 2. SDH or synchronous digital hierarchy

– The bit stream is transferred over the optical fibers using either light emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers i.e., the sources that emit highly coherent […]

Explain Asynchronous Transfer Mode?

Asynchronous transfer mode or ATM can be defined as the telecommunications standard regarding carrying of the whole range of user traffic (i.e., consisting of data, voice and video signals etc.) as defined by the ITU and ANSI. – This standard was brought in to existence for unifying the computer networks and telecommunication networks. – The […]

Give the characteristics of Communication Protocols?

A system of rules and digital message formats for the exchange of the messages in telecommunications and between different computing systems is called the communication protocol. A protocol can also be defined formally. Protocols may possess a number of capabilities few of which have been mentioned below: 1. Signaling 2. Authentication 3. Error detection and […]

Explain Ethernet – a Communication Protocol

All the computer networking technologies working for the local area networks or LANs together constitute a family called Ethernet. – The concept was commercialized in the year of 1980 though it achieved standardization in the year of 1985. – The corresponding standard is IEEE 802.3. – A number of wired LAN technologies have been replaced […]