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Explain Internet Protocol Suite – a communication protocol?

The set of communication protocols that is applied to the internet and other networks similar to internet is termed as the internet protocol suite. Internet protocol suite is today the most widely used and popular protocol for the WANs (wide area networks).
More commonly, it is known as the TCP/ IP because of its two important protocols namely:
1. Transmission control protocol (TCP) and
2. Internet protocol (IP)
These two were the first standard networking protocols to be ever defined. End–to–End connectivity is provided by internet protocol suite and it only gives specification regarding the following operations on data:
1. Formatting
2. Addressing
3. Transmitting
4. Routing
5. Receipt at the destination

Layers of Internet Protocol Suite

It consists of 4 abstraction layers for sorting the internet protocols as per the scope of the network. Below mentioned are the layers in order from low to high:
1. The Link Layer: Communication technologies are contained in this layer for the local network.

2. The Internet Layer: Inter-networking is established by this layer since it connects all the local networks. Here the data-grams are exchanged across the boundaries of the network.

3. The Transport Layer: The host–to-host communication is handled by this layer. The networking regime in which the communication takes place is constituted by this layer itself. The regimes in the LAN and remote areas are separated by placing the routers in between them. A uniform networking interface is provided by the transport layer that helps in hiding the topology of the network.

4. The Application Layer: All the protocols for the data communication services are contained in this layer on the process level. The scope within which the creation and communication of the data takes place is defined by this layer. Peers are here the communication partners.In this layer the higher level protocols operate namely:
– SMTP
– FTP
– SSH
– HTTP

Principles of Internet Protocol Suite

The internet protocol suite has got two basic principles namely:
1. The Robustness Principle
– The sending behavior must be conservative and the receiving behavior must be liberal.
– In other words, it means that the implementation must observe care while sending the data grams but it should be capable of accepting any data gram that it can decipher.
– This is the first part of the principle and the second part says the software installed on the other host machines may consist some deficiencies because of which it becomes unfit for exploiting the legal protocol features that are obscure in nature.

2. End–to–End Principle
– This principle took a long time to evolve.
– It assumed that the internet through which the edges were connected could not retain any state and could only concentrate up on the simplicity and the speed.

In order to provide abstraction of the protocols, encapsulation process is used by the internet protocol suite. Encapsulation is done in alignment with the division of the suite. The protocol suite is divided in to layers possessing general functionality. A set of protocols is used by every web application for sending its data to other layers. At each level the data is further encapsulated. The layers that lie near the application are quite close to it in terms of logic. On the other hand the layers at the bottom are close to the physical data transmission.

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