A sample text widget

Etiam pulvinar consectetur dolor sed malesuada. Ut convallis euismod dolor nec pretium. Nunc ut tristique massa.

Nam sodales mi vitae dolor ullamcorper et vulputate enim accumsan. Morbi orci magna, tincidunt vitae molestie nec, molestie at mi. Nulla nulla lorem, suscipit in posuere in, interdum non magna.

Explain Ethernet – a Communication Protocol

All the computer networking technologies working for the local area networks or LANs together constitute a family called Ethernet.
– The concept was commercialized in the year of 1980 though it achieved standardization in the year of 1985.
– The corresponding standard is IEEE 802.3.
– A number of wired LAN technologies have been replaced by the Ethernet.
– There are a number of signaling and wiring variants concerning the OSI physical layer that are in use with the Ethernet.
– All of these constitute the Ethernet standards.
– A coaxial cable was used by the first Ethernet 10BASE5 as a shared medium.
– Later, the twisted pair cables and optic fibers replaced this coaxial connection.
– However, these optic fibers and twisted pairs alone did not helped, one has to use switches and hubs.
– A periodic increase 10 MBPS to 100 GBPS was recorded in the data rates.
– The stream of the data is divided in to smaller units of data called the frames by the systems that communicate using Ethernet.
– Each frame consists of the following three things:
1. Source address
2. Destination address
3. Error checking data
– The error checking data is added so that the correctness of the transmitted data could be verified.
– According to the OSI model, Ethernet should serve up to the data link layer and inclusive of that.
– Since the day of its commercial release, Ethernet has maintained good compatibility to a great degree.
– Certain features such as the Ethernet frame format, 48 – bit MAC address etc. are known to affect the other networking protocols.
– The inspiration for the development of the Ethernet was achieved from ALOHAnet.
– Later, the Ethernet development took place between the years 1973 and 1974 at the XeroxPARC.
– Initially two large proprietary systems namely token bus and token ring gave a tough competition to Ethernet.
– However, these two protocols were taken over by Ethernet due to its ability to adapt to the realities of the market and less expensive and ubiquitous wiring.
– By the year 1980, the Ethernet was probably the most widely used network technology all over the world.
– Since then the Ethernet has been continuously evolving in order to keep up with the changing requirements of the market and bandwidth.
– It is not just the computers that can be connected through this technology, even other types of personal devices and appliances can be connected using Ethernet.
– A number of industrial applications also use it and now the legacy data transmission systems used in the telecommunications have become outdated.
– The project for standardizing the LAN was started by IEEE in the year of 1980.
– Improvements were made to Ethernet to make it work with higher bandwidths, different media access control methods and other physical media.
– The part of the coaxial cable was played by the point – to – point links in Ethernet.
– This had a number of other added advantages such as:
1. Reduced cost of installation
2. Increase in the reliability
3. Improvement in the management
4. Trouble shooting

How is the communication established?

– The communication between two Ethernet stations is accomplished by sending and receiving the data packets.
– A 48 – bit MAC address is given to every Ethernet station.
– This MAC address is required for specifying both the source and the destination of all the data packets.
– Link level connections are defined by the Ethernet using both the source and destination addresses.
– Whenever a transmitted message is received, the receiver determines the correctness of the received data using the destination address.
– Packets that are addressed to the Ethernet stations are accepted by the network interfaces.
– Because of the frame type, the Ethernet frames are said to be the self – identifying ones.
– Using such frames, it becomes possible to mix a number of different protocols.
– One peculiar thing about Ethernet is that the same frame format has been used by all the generations of the Ethernet.
– Frames are connected to each other through bridging.

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>