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List out the characteristics of Metropolitan Area Network and Wide Area Network?

About Metropolitan Area Network

– The type of computer network that spans a whole city or a very large campus is termed as the metropolitan area network or MAN in short.
– A number of LANs (local area networks) when interconnected forms a metropolitan area network.
– All these networks are interconnected through a backbone technology having a very high capacity.
– This backbone technology might be based up on fiber – optical links offering up – link services to internet and wide area networks (WANs).
– According to IEEE 802 – 2002 standard, a MAN has to be more optimized than a LAN to be implemented in a larger geographical area.
– It may range from several blocks of a campus to an entire city.
– To some extent a MAN may show some dependency up on the data rates range from moderate to high.
– A single organization might own or operate a metropolitan area network but several individual organizations might use it.
– In some cases, a MAN might be treated as a public utility and be owned and operated as such.
– A MAN provides a means to the local area networks for inter-networking.
– The geographical scope of a metropolitan area network is intermediate to that of a LAN and WAN as defined by Jane P. Laudan and Kenneth C. Laudan (authors of the ‘management information systems”).
– In a metropolitan area, it is the MAN that provides internet connectivity to the LANs.
– This is how LANs are connected to internet. Currently the technologies being used for this purpose are:
1. ATM or asynchronous transfer mode
2. FDDI
3. SMDS
– In most of the areas, the connection between the LANs and MANs has been given through wireless means such as radio, microwave or infrared instead of using cabling and wiring.
– Usually circuits are leased or rented by the companies from common carriers since they find it less expensive than laying long cables.

About Wide Area Network

– This network type spreads over quite a broad area across regional and national boundaries.
– This network connects by the means of public or private network transports.
– This network is used by the government entities and business organizations for relaying data among their clients, buyers, employees as well as suppliers who reside at different geographical locations.
– This network allows the business to take place effectively no matter what the location is.
– Well, Internet is the ultimate WAN and is used by governments, businesses, organizations and individuals alike.
– From the view of computer networking technology, this network can be defined as a technology used for transmitting data over long distances and between multiple LANs and WANs.
– The purpose of a WAN is not just to connect the LANs that are physically disparate.
– A campus area network is connected to a WAN backbone connecting various LANs within a network.
– Such a connection is usually given for providing better functionality to the users and facilitating applications demanding higher bandwidth.
– Some organizations have their own private WANs.
– Other WANs are built by the ISPs (internet service providers).
– Usually, the WANs are built up on leased lines.
– At the end of each line a router is present that is connected to the LAN.
– The router on the other side the router lies within the LAN.
– Using less costly packet switching or circuit switching is another option in place of using expensive leased lines.
– Transport and addressing functions are delivered through the network protocols.
– Usually in WANs protocols usually used are MPLS, packet over SONET/ SDH and frame relay.
– The research concerning the wide area networks can be divided in to 3 major areas:
1. Network emulation
2. Network simulation and
3. Mathematical models
– WAN optimization and wide area file services are used for delivering the performance improvements.

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