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What are different dynamic routing protocols?

About Dynamic Routing

– Dynamic routing or the adaptive routing is the type of routing using the routing protocols for the construction of the routing tables.
– Routing protocols carry information which is used for constructing the tables.
– This allows a network to act in an autonomous way, thus leaving no place for the blockages and failures.
– It is used with the large autonomous systems having many hosts.
– Both the hosts and routers require maintaining a routing table.
– The purpose of the router daemon is updating the table with all the possible routes.
– The table is read by the system’s kernel so that it can forward packets.
– The IP addresses including those of the local and the default network with which a particular system is concerned plus the address of the gateway system is listed.
– Dynamic routing rules the inter-networking.
– But the configuration of such networks calls for skills.
– Dynamic routing is best suited for the large internetworks and also with local networks having many hosts and routers.

In this article we discuss about the different types of protocols used in the dynamic routing of the networks.

What are dynamic routing protocols?

Two major adaptive – routing algorithms have been defined namely:
– RIP or the routing information protocol and the
– OSPF or open – shortest – path – first protocol.

A dynamic routing protocol is developed around an algorithm which must satisfy the following:
– Able to pass reach-ability info of networks to routers.
– Able to receive reach-ability info from routers.
– Able to determine optimal routes based up on the received info.
– Able to compensate for the topology changes
Each node is provided with a complete map of the network topology in link state routing. Up on the failure of a node, the new route can be calculated by each node. Problem with these kinds of networks is that all nodes don’t get a consistent view of the network. There are 3 basic properties of link state networks:
– Complete topology information should be provided to each node.
– All nodes must be provided with link state information.
– Guaranteed convergence.

About RIP or Routing information Protocol

– RIP dynamic routing protocol can be used efficiently for the IPv4 networks.
– Another variation of the same protocol called the RIPng has been used successfully for IPv6 networks for the maintenance of the routing tables.
– The purpose of these dynamic routing protocols extends to the determination of the next best path if an existing path to the destination cannot be used.
– The basic advantage offered by the dynamic routing over static routing is that it can compensate for the changes in topology.
– The same language should be used from both the sides in order for the communication to take place.
– 8 IP routing protocols are there among which RIP and OSPF are the most commonly used.
– For example, if one side uses OSPF and the other uses RIP, sharing of the routing info among them is not possible.

About OSPF or open – shortest – path – first protocol

– OSPF routing protocol falls under the category of the link state routing protocols and is the most important one used in inter-networking.
– The degree of complexity of this protocol is quite significant.
– Features of this protocol are:
1. Authentication of the routing messages.
2. It allows for load balancing by splitting the traffic evenly across the various routes and with equal cost.
3. Type of service routing: this allows the setting up of the TOS field dependent different routes.
4. Supports multicasting
5. Supports sub – netting
6. Hierarchical routing

– Till now, the following versions of OSPF have been released:
1. RFC 1131 OSPF version 1
2. RFC 1247 OSPF version 2
3. RFC 1583 OSPF version 2 revised
4. RFC 2178 OSPF version 2 revised
5. RFC 2328 OSPF version 2 revised

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