– The Internet Protocol or IP is the principal one among the communications protocol in the IP suite.
– Its particular purpose is to relay the data grams that lie across the boundaries of the network.
– Such functions in which the network packets are routed are very much required for inter-networking and more for the establishment of internet.
– Hence, the place of the primary protocol is attributed to IP in the internet layer of the IP suite.
– It also serves the task of delivery of data packets from source to destination.
– This task, it carries out solely on the basis of the addresses.
What is an important feature of IP Protocol?
– An important feature of the IP protocol is the data gram structures.
– These structures have been solely designed for the above mentioned purposes.
– These data gram structures keeps the data encapsulated that is to be delivered.
– Also, the addressing methods for labeling the data gram source as well as destination are defined by them.
– It is the responsibility of the internet protocol to address the hosts and at the same time route the data grams across the IP networks from source to destination host.
– IP protocol has a major ability of defining the addressing system and packet format as well.
– The addressing system defined by IP has got two major functions as stated below:
1. Identification of the hosts and
2. To provide a logical location service
What are characteristics of IP Protocol?
– This is an important characteristic of IP protocol. There are 2 components of each datagram namely header and payload.
– For tagging the IP header the following comes in use:
1. Source IP address
2. Destination IP address
3. Other meta data required in routing and delivering the data grams.
– The data to be transported is represented by the second component i.e., the payload.
– Thus, by encapsulation here we mean the nesting of the payload in data grams.
2. IP Addressing and Routing:
– Addressing involves assigning the IP addresses and parameters associated with it to the host interfaces.
– Dividing the address space in to various networks along with routing prefixes is also a part of this activity.
– All hosts perform IP routing but it is mainly the task of the routers.
– It is their duty to send the packets across the boundaries of the network.
– Specially designed protocols such as the EGPs (exterior gateway protocols) and the IGPs (interior gateway protocols) are used by routers to communication with each other.
– For local networking IP routing is a common business.
– It is always assumed by the principles implemented in designing the inter protocols that the infrastructure of the network is highly unreliable at any transmission medium or network element.
– They also assume that the network is dynamic when it comes to availability of nodes and links.
– There is no performance measurement facility that could be used for the maintenance of the network’s state or monitoring it.
– The end – to – end principle is used for reducing the complexity of the network.
4. Best effort delivery:
– The result of such designing is the best effort delivery.
– Plus the services it provide are characterized as unreliable.
5. Connection–less protocol:
– Network architectures call it so in comparison with the connection–oriented transmission.
– The network is open to a number of problems data corruption, packet loss and packet duplication.
6. Dynamic Routing:
– This implies independent treatment of every packet and no maintenance of the network state based up on prior packet paths.
– It may happen that the packets might get routed through a whole different path leading to improper sequencing at the receiving end.
– But IP protocol does offer solution for this.
– Check sum of a packet is calculated by some routing node and if it is bad, the packet is discarded.
– All the errors in the network need to be detected and the loss needs to be compensated by the end nodes.
– Such reliability issues are solved by the IP protocol’s upper layers.