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What are features of Static NAT? What exactly does it do?

There is a type of NAT that includes mapping of a private IP address to a public IP address. The public address is always the same IP address. This is termed as the static NAT. This same address is called the static IP address.

– With the static NAT, an internal host (like a web server) can be allowed to keep an unregistered private IP address and still remain reachable throughout the spread of internet.
– NAT was originally developed by Cisco and may be used by devices such as router or firewall i.e., the devices located between the external world and the internal network.
– In static NAT, one-to–one basis the unregistered IP address is mapped to a registered one.
– This type of NAT comes to be very useful when a device needs to be accessed from the external network.
– A LAN or local area network is usually the internal network and is known as the stub domain in common terms.
– This domain internally makes use of the IP addresses.
– Since a large part of the traffic coming in this domain is local, so it does not have to travel outside it.
– It consists of both the registered as well as the unregistered IP addresses.
– Computers using an unregistered IP address need to have NAT for communicating with the external network.
– Static NAT is quite simple since it involves one – to – one mapping.
– This NAT has been developed for supporting any inbound connections that are established between your private network and the public network.
– For each of the defined local address, there is an associated unique global address.
– Inbound mapping is another name for static NAT.
– It is a bit dangerous also because even if there occurs one mis-configuration in the firewall, the whole NAT enabled device will be fully exposed to the private network which is mapped with other public IP addresses.
– The private network is connected to the internet through a router configured in the static NAT mode.
– Each of the host on the private network is mapped to a single IP address.
– Therefore, if private network generates any packets that have to be routed, their source IP field needs to be replaced with the public IP address.
– All these translations take place in the memory of the router.
– Full transparency of the process is maintained between the external as well as the internal hosts.
– When external hosts try to connect to the internal hosts, their packets will be forwarded depending up on the configuration of the firewall and router of the internal hosts or they will be simply dropped.
– Static NAT provides a solution for the companies who want their internal network host to be accessible as well as visible from the external hosts.

NAT could be of great use in a situation such as follows:
– You need a development to be secure but at the same time must be accessible for customers for development purposes. – So the customers need to be given access to the data base on the main server.
– Here, static NAT can be employed in combination with some complex filters that will make sure that only the authorized customers access the database.

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