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Baseband Coaxial Cable – a type of transmission media

– Base band coaxial cable is one of the most common types of transmission media.
– Most of the times it is also called coax in short.
– This is a type of very high capacity cabling and its use is widespread in the field of telephone signals transmission, digital audio signals and television signals as well.
– The main characteristic of this cable is its high efficiency in carrying a number of analog signals that too at very high frequencies.
– Nowadays, the coaxial cable is counted among the vital components of the superhighway on which the information travels.
– Coaxial cables are employed in a number of installations such as commercial, industrial and residential etc.
– With the coax, it has been possible to develop a cost effective and infrastructure for the communication in various fields such as the broadcast, LAN (local area network), CATV (community antenna television), CCTV (closed circuit television) and so on.
– In the telecommunications industry, you can see the coax dropping in to the house of the subscriber or reaching the pole and it is connected to a twisted pair cabling that in turns is connected telephone.
– Coaxial also proves to be an effective solution for providing high speed data access for the small businesses and residencies.
– This is so because the topology used for wiring the coax is the bus topology and thus the requirement of the cable is very less when compared to the other solutions.
– Also, it does not require a hub thus lowering the cost.
– When compared to the twisted pair cable, the information can be transmitted through coaxial cable 80 times faster because of its higher bandwidth.
– In a coaxial cable, the information is protected to a great extent from noise as well as interference.
– It is easy to provide support to the long coaxial cables in case if the distance between any two networking devices is too much.
– It has very high immunity against the interference generated by the various noise signals and is therefore commonly employed in the manufacturing environments.
– A solid wire of metal usually copper is the inner conductor of the coax that is enclosed in an insulating dielectric material.
– This material is in turn surrounded by an outer conductor which is like a tubular structure made up of metal screen called shield.
– Finally a jacket i.e., an outer plastic cover surrounds this whole thing.
– This transmission media has been named so because it has only one physical carrier for the signal that is wrapped around by a second physical carrier or channel and both these channels share the same axis.
– Transmission of the data takes place at the central conductor while the outer channel provides grounding.
– These two conductors carry in opposite directions the equal currents.
– For example, in CCTV installations solid copper conductors are used since it provides less distortion and loss of line when compared to the copper covered steel.
– It is used usually for the permanent installations and not for the temporary ones since it can break easily being too soft.
– Multiple strands of copper can be stranded together to form a gauge of desired size.
– Such gauges also provide more flexibility when compared to their solid counterparts.
– These types of wires are commonly are used in robotics, tilt cameras etc. where flexibility is required.
– A third type is the copper covered steel conductors.
– They are used where strength is the major requirement.
– Such conductors prevent breakage.
– These are widely used in CATV applications.
– The purpose of the shielding in coaxial cable is protecting the signal from getting attenuated when transmission takes place at high frequencies.
– It also prevents the disturbance caused by the radio frequency interference and electromagnetic interference in the circuits.
– Shielding comes in three types namely braid shield, foil shielding and quad shielding.
– The outer jacket also comes in many types such as the following:

  • Poly – vinyl chloride
  • Polyethylene
  • Fluorinated ethylene propylene

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