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About International Standard ISO/IEC 9126

– The international standard ISO/IEC 9126 is associated with the product quality in the field of software engineering.
– This standard was developed with the fundamental objective of addressing some very common human biases that are said to have an adverse effect of the perception with which the software is developed and its delivery as well.
– These biases are inclusive of the change in the priorities of the software development once the project has started or not defining the success quotient of the software properly.
– ISO/IEC 9126 is a measure for developing a common understanding between the developers and the customer regarding the goals and objectives of the software.
– This it does by making clarifications and agreement up on the validation of the data with zero intervention against the schema X.

The standard ISO/IEC 9126 is composed of 4 parts which have been listed below:

1. Quality Model: This part of the ISO/IEC 9126 standard is for the classification of the software quality in to a set of characteristics and sub – characteristics in a structured manner:
Functionality: Attributes under this category is based up on the functions and their associated properties and include:
– Suitability
– Accuracy
– Interoperability
– Security
– Functionality compliance

Reliability: These attributes are based up on the capability of the software of maintaining its performance level under certain conditions and for a certain period of time:
– Maturity
– Fault tolerance
– Recover-ability
– Reliability compliance

Usability: These attributes refer to the effort required and its individual assessment by a set of users:
– Learnability
– Understandability
– Operability
– Attractiveness
– Usability compliance

Efficiency: These attributes refer to the relationship between the resources used and performance level:
– Resource utilization
– Time behavior
– Efficiency compliance

Maintainability: These attributes refer to the effort required for making some specific modifications:
– Analyzability
– Changeability
– Testability
– Stability
– Maintainability compliance

Portability: It includes co – existence, portability compliance, install-ability, replace-ability, adaptability etc.

2. External metrics: This category includes the metrics that can be applied only to the executing software.

3. Internal metrics: This category includes the metrics which are used for static measurement i.e., which do not depend up on the execution of the software.

4. Quality in use metrics: This becomes available only on the practical use of the final software product under real conditions. To say the external quality is determined by the internal quality and the quality in use is in turn determined by the external quality.

Quality Characteristics of ISO/IEC 9126

The above mentioned sub – characteristics can also be divided in to further attributes. The root of this standard can be traced back to the GE model for the description of the quality of the software. This model was designed by McCall et al., in the year of 1977. This model centers on the following three quality characteristics type:
– Factors (for specification): These factors describe the software’s external view from the user’s point of view.
– Criteria (for building): These characteristics describe the software’s internal view from the developer’s point of view.
– Metrics (for controlling): These characteristics are defined and then used for providing a method as well as a scale for measurement.

– ISO/IEC 9126 standard serves as a way for distinguishing between the non – conformity and the defects.
– Defect refers to the non–fulfillment of the usage requirements that were intended.
– On the other hand non–conformity refers to the non–fulfillment of the requirement specifications.
– A similar sort of distinction is found in the testing trade known as the validation and verification or V & V.
– ISO/IEC 9126 was declared in the year of 1991 and was again revised in 2001.
– It was this time that it was divided in to the above mentioned 4 parts.

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